What Is Dyssomnia? Types And Treatments

WHAT IS DYSSOMNIA?

Around 50 to 70 million American adults struggle with chronic sleep disorders.

Dyssomnia is a medical condition and a broad term mainly used for the collection of sleep disorders. Such as difficulty getting sleep, remaining asleep, and excessive sleepiness. 

Dyssomnias pessimistically affect the amount, time, and quality of sleep. With Dyssomnias you feel troubled while sleeping at night that is the symptom of Insomnia. With Dyssomnias you may also feel the need to sleep excessively, which is known as hypersomnolence.

Dyssomnia patients complain about a few complexities related to sleep, they complain about restless sleeping, staying asleep, waking from sleep during midnight, early morning awakening, or any of these sleep disorders combinations.

TYPES OF DYSSOMNIA

There are three major categories of Dyssomnias.

  1. Intrinsic sleep disorders
  2. Extrinsic sleep disorders
  3. Circadian rhythm sleep disorders

Symptoms of sleep disorders are more or less the same however their treatments and diagnosis are different that is why we are going to dig deep about distinct types of Dyssomnia

TYPES OF DYSSOMNIA

1. INTRINSIC SLEEP DISORDER

Intrinsic Dyssomnia is primarily caused by internal dysfunction like neurological disorders, mental illnesses, other factors such as Alzheimer’s Disease and Parkinson’s disease.

SUBCATEGORIES OF INTRINSIC DYSSOMNIAS

INSOMNIA

Many people experience insomnia and it’s the most common type of Dyssomnia. Individuals who have insomnia may undergo complications like difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, and maintaining sleep if they fall asleep. Short-term insomnia lasts a month or maybe less than and is caused by life events. On the other hand, chronic insomnia lasts longer than a month and is caused by medical conditions or lifestyle habits. About 33% of adults experience chronic insomnia. 

Other main symptoms of insomnia are feeling sleepy during the day even getting enough sleep at night. Treatments of insomnia include Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medications to lessen insomnia symptoms.

OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA

In Obstructive sleep apnea, people experience a partial or complete blockage of upper airways while sleeping. Because of OSA you snore, gasp, snort, and you temporarily stop breathing during your sleep. In Obstructive sleep apnea, you awake many times at night and remain restless because of blockage of air. In the morning you feel exhausted and have headaches and experience daytime sleepiness. 

Your doctor may suggest you a Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device or surgical procedures to improve breathing during sleep. Other treatments of OSA are less consumption of alcohol and weight loss. 

NARCOLEPSY

Narcolepsy is a chronic neurological condition in which the brain doesn’t function properly, and the sleep and wake cycle of a person doesn’t regulate by the brain accurately. In this state person often experience daytime sleepiness even though they get adequate sleep at night. The signs of Narcolepsy include cataplexy, muscle weakness, loss of control, sleep paralysis, and hallucinations.

Sadly, there is no cure for Narcolepsy. But various drug treatments can improve the alertness in people who have sleep conditions.

RESTLESS LEGS SYNDROME

In this Syndrome, you have uncontrollable movements of legs, arms, and other body parts. In restless legs Syndrome, individuals feel discomfort and move their legs to get relief from irritating crawling sensations, and this happened at night while they sleep. The symptoms include the person feeling troubled falling asleep, and the crawling sensation waking them out. Because of this, their morning rest is ruined. Various drugs can lessen the pain of this syndrome and decrease or eradicate the syndrome.

PERIODIC LIMB MOVEMENT DISORDER

Same as restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder can irritate you while you sleep at night. When you try to sleep at night this disorder can cause unwanted movements of legs and arms. These movements occur every 20-40 seconds. As a result, you feel excessive sleepiness in the daytime. The treatments doctors prescribed for this syndrome as the same drug used to treat restless leg syndrome. 

HYPERSOMNIA

In Hypersomnia sleep disorder people feel excessive sleepiness and fall asleep in the daytime. Moreover, in this condition, people struggle to wake up even after a long sleep. Hypersomnia might have an inherent cause like Narcolepsy, medications, or maybe a medical disorder. The treatment of this, such as drugs can decrease the symptoms of excessive sleepiness.

WHAT IS DYSSOMNIA? TYPES, AND TREATMENTS 

2. EXTRINSIC SLEEP DISORDERS

Extrinsic sleep disorders are mainly caused by the conditions outside of the body, for instance, environment and health habits.

SUBCATEGORIES OF EXTRINSIC DYSSOMNIAS

POOR SLEEP HYGIENE

Sleep hygiene is maintaining the sleep routine, which means sleeping and waking up at the same time daily with proper diet and exercise.

You must practice good sleep hygiene like you have to turn off the television and other activities you perform at late night and don’t consume caffeinated beverages at night. Because your poor sleep hygiene can cause sleep complications.

NOCTURNAL EATING SYNDROME

A nocturnal eating disorder is when you consume more than a quarter or more of your daily nutrition after your meal at night.

That simply means your appetite has increased during your bedtime. As a result, you feel difficulty in sleeping because of increased calories.

The treatment for this is Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) to help people fight nocturnal eating syndrome. However, you can take suggestions from your doctor for better treatment.

WHAT IS DYSSOMNIA? TREATMENTS of DYSSOMNIA

3. CIRCADIAN RHYTHM SLEEP DISORDERS

This disorder occurs when you change your lifestyle and environment, and this affects your natural Circadian rhythm.

For instance, when it begins to get darker earlier in the wintertime. And your usual sleep time may be 8-9 pm, but because night starts early in winter you start to feel sleepy at 6-7 pm.

SUBCATEGORIES OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHM SLEEP DISORDERS

SHIFT WORK SLEEP DISORDER

This Dyssomnia disorder is associated with a person who does work in shifts on their job. This creates a hindrance in sleeping because these people are not able to adjust with different timing. For example, their shifts are like night-time work and daytime rest.

JET LAG

Jet lag can disrupt your sleep because when you travel, the change in time zone can affect your wake-sleep cycle for a few days after you arrive at your place. Jet lag primarily happened when your body experiences a sudden time change. Upon arrival at your destination try to expose yourself to darkness at night and sunlight in the morning so your body will again adjust the timing.

NON-24-HOUR SLEEP-WAKE DISORDER

The non-24-hour-sleep-wake disorder is a rare condition in people. In this disorder, the usual wake-sleep cycle of a person is longer than the standard 24 hours. In this condition, daily sleep and wake times might be prolonged between one and two hours. About 40% and 60% of people who are blind have been found with this disorder.

DELAYED SLEEP PHASE SYNDROME

In delayed sleep phase conditions, the person’s sleep occurs later than desired. In this disorder, the person tried to sleep very hard but couldn’t sleep until late at night, and because of this reason they also wake up late in the morning or even the afternoon. For example, the normal person sleeps from 7 pm to 7 am. On the other hand, if someone sleep delayed 5-6 hours would be sleeping from 5 am to 2 pm. Delayed sleep syndrome is common among adolescents.

ADVANCED SLEEP-PHASE SYNDROME

Advanced sleep syndrome is the direct opposite of delayed sleep syndrome. In this, you sleep early and wake up early. This condition is more found in older adults.

DYSSOMNIA VS PARASOMNIA

Dyssomnia and parasomnia are both sleep disorders but there is a distinction between the two. Dyssomnia is a disorder in which you feel troubled sleeping, excessive sleepiness, and maintaining sleep. On the other hand, in parasomnia disorder, you experience poor quality of sleep. Moreover, in parasomnia, you also experience unwanted behaviors and physical actions during sleep. Common parasomnias include sleepwalking, sleep terrors, Rapid eye movement REM behavior sleep disorder, and urination during sleep.

TREATMENT FOR DYSSOMNIA

Treatment for Dyssomnia differs following the exact sleep disorder that causes poor sleep. Some sleep disorders require medications to get relief from symptoms. Other sleep disorders can be treated with Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). However, if you maintain a sleep-wake schedule and create a comfortable sleep environment for yourself that can help to improve sleep.

Lastly, if you are facing sleeping problems and not getting adequate sleep then you should consult your health care doctors about Dyssomnia and discuss all of it.

CONCLUSION

To conclude, Dyssomnia is the broad term used for the collection of sleep disorders. In this article Dyssomnias types, treatment, and differences have been discussed comprehensively.

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